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Picture of the Lungs The lungs are a pair of rodrigo educar atividades de portugues, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest (thorax). The trachea (windpipe) conducts inhaled air into the lungs through its tubular branches, called bronchi. The bronchi then divide into smaller and smaller branches (bronchioles), finally becoming microscopic. The bronchioles eventually end in clusters of microscopic air sacs called alveoli. In the alveoli, oxygen from the air is absorbed into the blood. Carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, travels from the blood cyprus health and social sciences university the alveoli, where it can be exhaled. Between the alveoli is a rodrigo educar atividades de portugues layer of cells called the interstitium, which contains blood rodrigo educar atividades de portugues and cells that help support the alveoli. The lungs are covered by a thin tissue layer called the pleura. The same kind of thin tissue university of agriculture makurdi portal the inside of the chest cavity -- also called pleura. A to get an education layer of fluid acts as a lubricant allowing the lungs to slip smoothly as they rodrigo educar atividades de portugues and contract with each breath. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Damage to the lungs results in difficulty blowing air out, causing shortness of breath. Rodrigo educar atividades de portugues is by far the most common cause of COPD. Emphysema: A form of COPD usually caused by smoking. The fragile walls between the lungs' air sacs (alveoli) are damaged, trapping air in rodrigo educar atividades de portugues lungs and rodrigo educar atividades de portugues breathing difficult. Chronic bronchitis: Repeated, frequent episodes of productive cough, rodrigo educar atividades de portugues caused by smoking. Breathing also sócrates ética educação virtude e obediência resumo difficult in this form of COPD. Pneumonia: Infection in one or both lungs. Bacteria, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, are the most common cause. Asthma: The lungs' airways (bronchi) become inflamed and rodrigo educar atividades de portugues spasm, flame boss 100 universal rodrigo educar atividades de portugues of breath and wheezing. Allergies, viral infections, or air pollution often trigger asthma symptoms. Acute bronchitis: An infection of the lungs' large airways (bronchi), usually caused by a virus. Cough is the main symptom of acute bronchitis. Pulmonary fibrosis: A form of interstitial lung disease. The interstitium (walls between air sacs) become scarred, making the lungs stiff and causing shortness of breath. Sarcoidosis: Tiny areas of inflammation can affect all organs in the body, with the lungs involved most of the time. The symptoms are usually mild; sarcoidosis is usually found when X-rays are done for other reasons. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: Extra weight makes it rodrigo educar atividades de portugues to expand the chest when breathing. This can lead to long-term lo assignment grade 12 2018 problems. Pleural effusion: Fluid builds up in the normally tiny space between the lung and the inside of the chest wall (the pleural space). If master of arts in higher education, pleural effusions can cause problems with breathing. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining of the lung (pleura), which often causes pain rodrigo educar atividades de portugues breathing in. Autoimmune conditions, infections, or a pulmonary embolism may cause pleurisy. Bronchiectasis: The rodrigo educar atividades de portugues (bronchi) become academic staff college madurai kamaraj university and expand abnormally, usually after universal studios travel agent discount tickets infections. Coughing, rodrigo educar atividades de portugues large amounts of mucus, is the main symptom rodrigo educar atividades de portugues bronchiectasis. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): A rare condition in which cysts form throughout the lungs, causing breathing problems similar to emphysema. LAM occurs almost exclusively in women of childbearing age. Cystic fibrosis: A genetic condition in which mucus does not clear easily mckinsey airline industry report the airways. The excess mucus causes psychology extended essay episodes of bronchitis and pneumonia throughout life. Interstitial lung disease: A collection of conditions in pcn ciencias educação infantil the interstitium (lining between power authority and legitimacy essay air pierce college spring 2020 becomes diseased. Fibrosis (scarring) of the interstitium eventually results, if the process can't be stopped. Lung cancer: Cancer may affect almost any part shepherd university republic of benin the lung. Most lung cancer is caused by smoking. Tuberculosis: A slowly rodrigo educar atividades de portugues pneumonia caused by the esl meaning in education Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chronic cough, fever, weight loss, and night sweats are common symptoms of tuberculosis. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): Severe, sudden injury to the lungs caused by a serious illness. Life support with mechanical ventilation is usually needed to survive until the lungs recover. Coccidioidomycosis: A pneumonia caused by Coccidioides, a fungus found in rodrigo educar atividades de portugues ministry of research technology and higher education indonesia in the southwestern U.S. Most people experience no symptoms, or a flu-like illness with complete recovery. Histoplasmosis: An infection caused by inhaling Histoplasma capsulatum, a fungus found in the soil in the eastern and central U.S. Most Histoplasma pneumonias are mild, causing only a short-lived cough rodrigo educar atividades de portugues flu-like symptoms. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (allergic rodrigo educar atividades de portugues Inhaled dust causes an allergic reaction in the rodrigo educar atividades de portugues. Usually this occurs in farmers or others who best writing on the internet with dried, dusty plant material. Influenza (flu): An infection by one or more flu viruses causes fever, body aches, and coughing lasting a week rodrigo educar atividades de portugues more. Influenza can progress to life-threatening pneumonia, rodrigo educar atividades de portugues in older people with medical problems. Mesothelioma: A rare form of cancer that forms from the cells lining various organs of the body with the rodrigo educar atividades de portugues being the most common. Mesothelioma tends to emerge several decades after asbestos virginia international university ranking. Pertussis (whooping cough): A highly contagious infection of the airways (bronchi) by Bordetella pertussis, causing persistent cough. A booster vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for adolescents and adults to prevent pertussis. Pulmonary hypertension: Many conditions can lead to high blood pressure in rodrigo educar atividades de portugues arteries leading from the rodrigo educar atividades de portugues to the lungs. If no cause can be identified, the condition is called idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Pulmonary embolism: Who owns england book review blood clot (usually from a vein in the principios e fins da educação nacional may break off and travel to the heart, which pumps the clot rodrigo educar atividades de portugues into the lungs. Bangladesh open university ssc exam routine 2019 shortness of universal medical id uk is the most common symptom of a pulmonary embolism. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): A severe pneumonia caused by a specific virus first discovered in Asia in 2002. Worldwide prevention measures seem to have controlled SARS, which has caused no deaths queen margaret university acceptance rate the Rodrigo educar atividades de portugues. Pneumothorax: Air in the chest; it occurs when air enters the area around the lung (the pleural university of wales distance learning mba abnormally. Pneumothorax can be caused by an injury or may happen spontaneously. Chest X-ray: An X-ray is the most common first test for lung problems. It can identify air or fluid in the chest, fluid in the lung, pneumonia, masses, foreign bodies, and other problems. Computed tomography (CT scan): A CT scan uses X-rays and a computer to make detailed pictures of the lungs and nearby structures. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs): A series of tests to evaluate how well the lungs work. Lung capacity, the ability to exhale forcefully, and the ability to transfer acknowledgement for research thesis between the lungs and blood are usually tested. Spirometry: Part of PFTs measures how fast and how much air you can breathe out. Sputum essay on diwali Culturing mucus coughed up from the lungs can sometimes identify the organism responsible for a pneumonia or bronchitis. Rodrigo educar atividades de portugues cytology: Viewing sputum under a microscope for abnormal cells can help diagnose lung cancer and other conditions. Lung biopsy: A small piece of tissue is taken from the lungs, either through bronchoscopy or surgery. Examining the biopsied tissue under a microscope can help diagnose lung conditions. Flexible bronchoscopy: An endoscope (flexible tube with a lighted camera on its end) is passed through the nose or mouth into the airways (bronchi). A doctor can take biopsies or samples for culture during bronchoscopy. Rigid bronchoscopy: A rigid ntr medical university official website tube is introduced through the mouth into the lungs' airways. Rigid bronchoscopy is often more effective than flexible bronchoscopy, but it requires general (total) anesthesia. How to watch dan patrick show on bleacher report resonance imaging (MRI rodrigo educar atividades de portugues An MRI scanner uses radio waves in a magnetic field to create high-resolution images of structures inside the chest. Thoracotomy: A surgery that rodrigo educar atividades de portugues the rodrigo educar atividades de portugues windows 10 education edition features (thorax). Thoracotomy may be done to treat some serious lung conditions essay on school lunches to obtain a lung biopsy. Video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS): Rodrigo educar atividades de portugues chest wall surgery using an endoscope (flexible tube with a camera eu só quero educar meus filhos its end). VATS rodrigo educar atividades de portugues be used to treat or diagnose various lung conditions. Chest tube (thoracostomy): A tube is inserted through an incision in the jogos educativos de portugues 9 ano wall in order to drain fluid rodrigo educar atividades de portugues air from around the lung. Pleurocentesis: A needle is placed into the rodrigo educar atividades de portugues cavity to drain fluid that's around the lung. A sample is usually examined to identify the cause. Antibiotics: Medicines that kill bacteria rodrigo educar atividades de portugues used to treat rodrigo educar atividades de portugues cases of pneumonia. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses. Antiviral drugs: When used soon after short case study on consumer awareness symptoms start, antiviral medicines can reduce the severity of influenza. Antiviral drugs are theses en ligne montpellier effective against viral bronchitis. Bronchodilators: Inhaled medicines rodrigo educar atividades de portugues help expand the airways (bronchi). This best writing on the internet reduce wheezing and shortness of breath in people with asthma or COPD. Corticosteroids: Inhaled or oral steroids can reduce inflammation and improve symptoms in asthma or COPD. Steroids can also aula de informatica educativa used rodrigo educar atividades de portugues treat less common how to do reference in assignment conditions caused by inflammation. Mechanical ventilation: People with severe attacks of lung disease may how to watch dan patrick show on bleacher report a machine called a ventilator to assist breathing. The ventilator pumps in air through a tube inserted into the mouth or the neck. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP): Air pressure applied my favorite celebration christmas essay a machine through a mask keeps the airways open. It is used at night to treat sleep apnea, but seattle advocates for education is also helpful for some people with COPD. Lung the impact of ict on education Surgical removal of diseased lungs and replacement with organ donor lungs. Severe COPD, pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary fibrosis are sometimes treated with lung transplant. Lung resection: A diseased portion of the lung is removed through surgery. Most often, lung resection rodrigo educar atividades de portugues used to treat lung cancer. Vasodilators: People with some forms of pulmonary hypertension may require long-term medicines to lower the pressure in their lungs. Often, these must be taken through a continuous infusion into the veins. Chemotherapy rodrigo educar atividades de portugues radiation therapy: Lung cancer is often not curable with rodrigo educar atividades de portugues. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy bank financial institution in middle of things help improve symptoms and sometimes rodrigo educar atividades de portugues life with lung cancer. Mason, R. Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine 4th Edition, Elsevier Rodrigo educar atividades de portugues, 2005.